West nile virus

Shannan L. Rossi, Ted M. Ross, Jared D. Evans

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

103 Scopus citations


West Nile virus (WNV) is responsible for thousands of cases of morbidity and mortality in birds, horses, and humans. Epidemics were localized to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Asia, and primarily caused a mild febrile illness in humans. In the late 1990s, the virus became more virulent and spread to North America. In humans, the clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic, seen frequently, to encephalitis/paralysis and death, seen rarely. There is no FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-licensed vaccine for human use, and the only recommended treatment is supportive care. Often, there is a long recovery period. This article reviews the current literature summarizing the molecular virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, immunology, and protective measures against WNV and WNV infections in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-65
Number of pages19
JournalClinics in Laboratory Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Diagnosis
  • Flavivirus
  • Infection
  • Pathogenesis
  • West Nile virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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