UV-Inactivated rVSV-M2e-Based Influenza Vaccine Protected against the H1N1 Influenza Challenge

Titus Abiola Olukitibi, Zhujun Ao, Hiva Azizi, Maggie J. Ouyang, Tosin Omole, Lyle McKinnon, Darwyn Kobasa, Kevin Coombs, Gary Kobinger, Xiaojian Yao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: To investigate the immune responses and protection ability of ultraviolet light (UV)-inactivated recombinant vesicular stomatitis (rVSV)-based vectors that expressed a fusion protein consisting of four copies of the influenza matrix 2 protein ectodomain (tM2e) and the Dendritic Cell (DC)-targeting domain of the Ebola Glycoprotein (EΔM), (rVSV-EΔM-tM2e). Method: In our previous study, we demonstrated the effectiveness of rVSV-EΔM-tM2e to induce robust immune responses against influenza M2e and protect against lethal challenges from H1N1 and H3N2 strains. Here, we used UV to inactivate rVSV-EΔM-tM2e and tested its immunogenicity and protection in BALB/c mice from a mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza challenge. Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC), the influenza anti-M2e immune responses specific to human, avian and swine influenza strains induced were characterized. Likewise, the specificity of the anti-M2e immune responses induced in recognizing M2e antigen on the surface of the cell was investigated using Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) analysis. Results: Like the live attenuated rVSV-EΔM-tM2e, the UV-inactivated rVSV-EΔM-tM2e was highly immunogenic against different influenza M2e from strains of different hosts, including human, swine, and avian, and protected against influenza H1N1 challenge in mice. The FACS analysis demonstrated that the induced immune responses can recognize influenza M2 antigens from human, swine and avian influenza strains. Moreover, the rVSV-EΔM-tM2e also induced ADCC activity against influenza M2e from different host strains. Conclusions: These findings suggest that UV-inactivated rVSV-EΔM-tM2e could be used as an inactivated vaccine against influenza viruses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberfbl2905195
JournalFrontiers in Bioscience - Landmark
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2024


  • Antibody- Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC)
  • Ebola glycoprotein
  • M2 ectodomain
  • UV-inactivation
  • influenza
  • recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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