Using Machine Learning to Develop a Short-Form Measure Assessing 5 Functions in Patients With Stroke

Gong Hong Lin, Chih Ying Li, Ching Fan Sheu, Chien Yu Huang, Shih Chieh Lee, Yu Hui Huang, Ching Lin Hsieh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate a machine learning-based short measure to assess 5 functions (the ML-5F) (activities of daily living [ADL], balance, upper extremity [UE] and lower extremity [LE] motor function, and mobility) in patients with stroke. Design: Secondary data from a previous study. A follow-up study assessed patients with stroke using the Barthel Index (BI), Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (PASS), and Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) at hospital admission and discharge. Setting: A rehabilitation unit in a medical center. Participants: Patients (N=307) with stroke. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: The BI, PASS, and STREAM. Results: A machine learning algorithm, Extreme Gradient Boosting, was used to select 15 items from the BI, PASS, and STREAM, and transformed the raw scores of the selected items into the scores of the ML-5F. The ML-5F demonstrated good concurrent validity (Pearson's r, 0.88-0.98) and responsiveness (standardized response mean, 0.28-1.01). Conclusions: The ML-5F comprises only 15 items but demonstrates sufficient concurrent validity and responsiveness to assess ADL, balance, UE and LE functions, and mobility in patients with stroke. The ML-5F shows great potential as an efficient outcome measure in clinical settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1574-1581
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • Activities of daily living
  • Machine learning
  • Postural balance
  • Rehabilitation
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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