Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is associated with poor outcomes among patients with acute cholangitis: A nationwide analysis

Mohammad Bilal, Obada Tayyem, Hamzeh Saraireh, Monica Chowdhry, Praveen Guturu, Marwan S. Abougergi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective Acute cholangitis (AC) and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) are common emergencies encountered by gastroenterologists. We aimed to evaluate the impact of UGIH on in-hospital mortality, morbidity and resource utilization among patients with AC. Patients and methods Adult admissions with a principal diagnosis of AC were selected from the National Inpatient Sample 2010-2014. The exposure of interest was significant UGIH (requiring red blood cell transfusion). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were significant UGIH's incidence, morbidity (shock, prolonged mechanical ventilation and total parenteral nutrition), and resource utilization (length of hospital stay and total hospitalization charges and costs). Confounders were adjusted for using propensity matching and multivariate regression analysis. Results A total of 50 375 admissions were included in the analysis, 747 of whom developed significant UGIH. After adjusting for confounders, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of in-hospital mortality for patients who developed UGIH was 7.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.1-23.9, P<0.01) compared with those who did not. Significant UGIH was associated with substantial increase in morbidity [shock: aOR: 4.1 (2.1-9.3), P<0.01, prolonged mechanical ventilation: aOR: 5.8 (2.2-12.4), P<0.01, total parenteral nutrition: aOR: 4.7 (1.9-10.7), P<0.01], and resource utilization [mean adjusted difference in: length of hospital stay: 7.01 (4.72-9.29), P<0.01 and total hospitalization charges: $81 818 ($58 109-$105 527), P<0.01 and costs: $25 230 ($17 805-$32 653), P<0.01]. Similar results were obtained using multivariate regression analysis. Conclusion Onset of significant UGIH among patients hospitalized with AC has a detrimental effect on in-hospital mortality, morbidity and resource utilization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)586-592
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • acute cholangitis
  • morbidity
  • mortality
  • nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage
  • resource utilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology


Dive into the research topics of 'Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is associated with poor outcomes among patients with acute cholangitis: A nationwide analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this