Tumor-associated down-regulation of 15-lipoxygenase-1 is reversed by celecoxib in colorectal cancer

Martin J. Heslin, Ashley Hawkins, William Boedefeld, J. Pablo Arnoletti, Andrey Frolov, Richie Soong, Marshall M. Urist, Kirby I. Bland, Nipun Merchant, Dai H. Chung, Courtney M. Townsend

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate the role of celecoxib on 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) expression, protein levels, and rates of apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines. Also, to evaluate the expression of 15-LOX-1 in human normal mucosa, adenoma, and carcinoma with correlation to overall survival. Summary Background Data: The function of 15-LOX-1 is to maintain normal rates of apoptosis (programmed cell death). Decreased apoptosis is one mechanism of cancer growth and dissemination. It is our hypothesis that expression of 15-LOX-1 is reduced in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and the administration of celecoxib can reverse this process and induce apoptosis. Methods: Effect of celecoxib in cell culture: The effect of 40 μmol/L celecoxib was compared with untreated controls in tissue culture utilizing HT-29 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines. Expression of 15-LOX-1 protein was measured by immunoblot. Induction of apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V staining. All data are presented as mean ± SEM, with significance defined as P < 0.05. 15-LOX-1 in human CRC: From February 1998 to January 2002, 126 patients underwent surgical resection of either colorectal adenomas (n = 24) or carcinomas (n = 102), or both (n = 25). Tissue was macrodissected, snap frozen, and stored at -80°C. After tissue processing, RNA was extracted and gene expression of 15-LOX-1 was quantified utilizing ABI prism real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Significance evaluated by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Effect of celecoxib in cell culture: After 72 hours of treatment with celecoxib, immunoblot demonstrated a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in 15-LOX-1 protein expression in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells, respectively. Celecoxib produced greater than a 2-fold increase in the rate of apoptosis compared with control cells in both cell lines (P < 0.05). 15-LOX-1 in human CRC: The mean age of the patients was 62 ± 1 years; 78% were white and 48% were female. The mean size of the polyps and cancers were 3.0 ± 0.4 and 5.0 ± 0.1 cm, respectively. Expression of 15-LOX-1 relative to S9 was 30 in normal mucosa and significantly down-regulated to 11 in adenomas and 16 in carcinomas (P < 0.05). Conclusions: 15-LOX-1 gene expression is significantly reduced in both human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas and associated with decreased survival. Administration of celecoxib restores 15-LOX-1 protein expression and induces apoptosis. Down-regulation of 15-LOX-1 is an early event in the adenoma to carcinoma sequence, and reversal with celecoxib may represent one mechanism for chemoprevention of polyps or treatment of carcinomas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)941-947
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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