Togaviruses Causing Encephalitis

S. Paessler, M. Pfeffer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Scopus citations


The virus family Togaviridae comprises two genera: Alphavirus and Rubivirus. Encephalitic alphaviruses are neuroinvasive and cause neurological symptoms in various animals and humans. Western equine encephalitis virus is distributed in the US from the mid-western states of Michigan and Illinois to the west coast and in western Canada, whereas Eastern equine encephalitis virus is distributed from Texas to Florida along the Gulf coast and from Georgia to New Hampshire along the Atlantic Coast and in eastern Canada. Transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus occurs predominantly in Central and South America, with the exception of Everglades virus, which is found in Florida, and Bijou Bridge virus, found in western North America.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Virology
PublisherElsevier Ltd
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)9780123744104
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008


  • Alphavirus
  • Arbovirus
  • Astrocytes
  • Encephalitis
  • Lymphodepletion
  • Lymphotropism
  • Meningitis
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Neurons
  • Paralysis
  • RNA virus
  • Vector-borne disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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