Therapeutic potential of salicylamide derivatives for combating viral infections

Jimin Xu, Yu Xue, Andrew A. Bolinger, Jun Li, Mingxiang Zhou, Haiying Chen, Hongmin Li, Jia Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Since time immemorial human beings have constantly been fighting against viral infections. The ongoing and devastating coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic represents one of the most severe and most significant public health emergencies in human history, highlighting an urgent need to develop broad-spectrum antiviral agents. Salicylamide (2-hydroxybenzamide) derivatives, represented by niclosamide and nitazoxanide, inhibit the replication of a broad range of RNA and DNA viruses such as flavivirus, influenza A virus, and coronavirus. Moreover, nitazoxanide was effective in clinical trials against different viral infections including diarrhea caused by rotavirus and norovirus, uncomplicated influenza A and B, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. In this review, we summarize the broad antiviral activities of salicylamide derivatives, the clinical progress, and the potential targets or mechanisms against different viral infections and highlight their therapeutic potential in combating the circulating and emerging viral infections in the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)897-931
Number of pages35
JournalMedicinal Research Reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • broad-spectrum antiviral agents
  • infectious diseases
  • niclosamide
  • nitazoxanide
  • salicylamide derivatives

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery


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