The updated Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP 2.0) provides 3D models for allergens and incorporated bioinformatics tools

Surendra S. Negi, Catherine H. Schein, Werner Braun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Allergenic proteins can cause IgE-mediated adverse reactions in sensitized individuals. Although the sequences of many allergenic proteins have been identified, bioinformatics data analysis with advanced computational methods and modeling is needed to identify the basis for IgE binding and cross-reactivity. Objective: We aim to present the features and use of the updated Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins 2.0 (SDAP 2.0) webserver, a unique, publicly available resource to compare allergens using specially designed computational tools and new high-quality 3-D models for most known allergens. Methods: Previously developed and novel software tools for identifying cross-reactive allergens using sequence and structure similarity are implemented in SDAP 2.0. A comprehensive set of high-quality 3-D models of most allergens was generated with the state-of-the-art AlphaFold 2 software. A graphics tool enables the interactive visualization of IgE epitopes on experimentally determined and modeled 3-D structures. Results: A user can search for allergens similar to a given input sequence with the FASTA algorithm or the window-based World Health Organization/International Union of Immunological Societies (WHO/IUIS) guidelines on safety concerns of novel food products. Peptides similar to known IgE epitopes can be identified with the property distance tool and conformational epitopes by the Cross-React method. The updated database contains 1657 manually curated sequences including all allergens from the IUIS database, 334 experimentally determined X-ray or NMR structures, and 1565 3-D models. Each allergen/isoallergen is classified according to its protein family. Conclusions: SDAP provides access to the steadily increasing information on allergenic structures and epitopes with integrated bioinformatics tools to identify and analyze their similarities. In addition to serving the research and regulatory community, it provides clinicians with tools to identify potential coallergies in a sensitive patient and can help companies to design hypoallergenic foods and immunotherapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100162
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: Global
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • IgE binding
  • Protein evaluation for allergenicity
  • cross-reactivity
  • database of allergens
  • physical-chemical property distance (PD)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy


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