The Systemic Effects of Exercise on the Systemic Effects of Alzheimer’s Disease

Dora Aczel, Bernadett Gyorgy, Peter Bakonyi, Rehan Bukhari, Ricardo Pinho, Istvan Boldogh, Gu Yaodong, Zsolt Radak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disorder and a leading cause of dementia in the elderly. The etiology of AD is multifactorial, including an increased oxidative state, deposition of amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles of the tau protein. The formation of amyloid plaques is considered one of the first signs of the illness, but only in the central nervous system (CNS). Interestingly, results indicate that AD is not just localized in the brain but is also found in organs distant from the brain, such as the cardiovascular system, gut microbiome, liver, testes, and kidney. These observations make AD a complex systemic disorder. Still, no effective medications have been found, but regular physical activity has been considered to have a positive impact on this challenging disease. While several articles have been published on the benefits of physical activity on AD development in the CNS, its peripheral effects have not been discussed in detail. The provocative question arising is the following: is it possible that the beneficial effects of regular exercise on AD are due to the systemic impact of training, rather than just the effects of exercise on the brain? If so, does this mean that the level of fitness of these peripheral organs can directly or indirectly influence the incidence or progress of AD? Therefore, the present paper aims to summarize the systemic effects of both regular exercise and AD and point out how common exercise-induced adaptation via peripheral organs can decrease the incidence of AD or attenuate the progress of AD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1028
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • amyloid-β
  • exercise
  • free radicals
  • metabolism
  • peripheral organs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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