The reemergence of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995

Ali S. Khan, F. Kweteminga Tshioko, David L. Heymann, Bernard Le Guenno, Pierre Nabeth, Barbara Kerstiëns, Yon Fleerackers, Peter H. Kilmarx, Guenael R. Rodier, Okumi Nkuku, Pierre E. Rollin, Anthony Sanchez, Sherif R. Zaki, Robert Swanepoel, Oyewale Tomori, Stuart T. Nichol, C. J. Peters, J. J. Muyembe-Tamfum, Thomas G. Ksiazek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

341 Scopus citations


In May 1995, an international team characterized and contained an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Active surveillance was instituted using several methods, including house-to-house search, review of hospital and dispensary logs, interview of health care personnel, retrospective contact tracing, and direct follow-up of suspect cases. In the field, a clinical case was defined as fever and hemorrhagic signs, fever plus contact with a case-patient, or fever plus at least 3 of 10 symptoms. A total of 315 cases of EHF, with an 81% case fatality, were identified, excluding 10 clinical cases with negative laboratory results. The earliest documented case-patient had onset on 6 January, and the last case-patient died on 16 July. Eighty cases (25%) occurred among health care workers. Two individuals may have been the source of infection for >50 cases. The outbreak was terminated by the initiation of barrier-nursing techniques, health education efforts, and rapid identification of cases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S76-S86
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases


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