Tertiary Lymphoid Structures as Mediators of Immunotherapy Response

Raj G. Vaghjiani, Joseph J. Skitzki

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Since its first application in the treatment of cancer during the 1800s, immunotherapy has more recently become the leading edge of novel treatment strategies. Even though the efficacy of these agents can at times be predicted by more traditional metrics and biomarkers, often patient responses are variable. TLS are distinct immunologic structures that have been identified on pathologic review of various malignancies and are emerging as important determinants of patient outcome. Their presence, location, composition, and maturity are critically important in a host’s response to malignancy. Because of their unique immunogenic niche, they are also prime candidates, not only to predict and measure the efficacy of immunotherapy agents, but also to be potentially inducible gatekeepers to increase therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we review the mechanistic underpinnings of TLS formation, the data on its relationship to various malignancies, and the emerging evidence for the role of TLS in immunotherapy function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3748
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • HEV-like vessels
  • cancer immunotherapy
  • tertiary lymphoid structures
  • tumor immunology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


Dive into the research topics of 'Tertiary Lymphoid Structures as Mediators of Immunotherapy Response'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this