Systemic Manifestations in Pyridox(am)ine 5′-Phosphate Oxidase Deficiency

Réjean M. Guerriero, Archana A. Patel, Brian Walsh, Fiona M. Baumer, Ankoor S. Shah, Jurriaan M. Peters, Lance H. Rodan, Pankaj B. Agrawal, Phillip L. Pearl, Masanori Takeoka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective Pyridoxine is converted to its biologically active form pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P) by the enzyme pyridox(am)ine 5′-phosphate oxidase and serves as a cofactor in nearly 200 reactions in the central nervous system. Pyridox(am)ine 5′-phosphate oxidase deficiency leads to P5P dependent epilepsy, typically a neonatal- or infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy treatable with P5P or in some cases, pyridoxine. Following identification of retinopathy in a patient with pyridox(am)ine 5′-phosphate oxidase deficiency that was reversible with P5P therapy, we describe the systemic manifestations of pyridox(am)ine 5′-phosphate oxidase deficiency. Methods A series of six patients with homozygous mutations of PNPO, the gene coding pyridox(am)ine 5′-phosphate oxidase, were evaluated in our center over the course of two years for phenotyping of neurological and systemic manifestations. Results Five of six were born prematurely, three had anemia and failure to thrive, and two had elevated alkaline phosphatase. A movement disorder was observed in two children, and a reversible retinopathy was observed in the most severely affected infant. All patients had neonatal-onset epilepsy and were on a continuum of developmental delay to profound encephalopathy. Electroencephalographic features included background slowing and disorganization, absent sleep features, and multifocal and generalized epileptiform discharges. All the affected probands carried a homozygous PNPO mutation (c.674 G>T, c.686 G>A and c.352G>A). Conclusion In addition to the well-described epileptic encephalopathy, pyridox(am)ine 5′-phosphate oxidase deficiency causes a range of neurological and systemic manifestations. A movement disorder, developmental delay, and encephalopathy, as well as retinopathy, anemia, and failure to thrive add to the broadening clinical spectrum of P5P dependent epilepsy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-53
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric Neurology
StatePublished - Nov 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • epileptic encephalopathy
  • pyridoxal-5-phosphate
  • pyridoxine
  • reversible retinopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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