Sociodemographic disparities in pediatric cochlear implantation outcomes: A systematic review

Mahmoud Omar, Anas M. Qatanani, Nerone O. Douglas, Baraa S. Nawash, Tamara Ibrahim, Syed Z. Kaleem, Brian J. McKinnon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objectives: To determine the impact of sociodemographic factors on post-operative performance outcomes among PCI recipients across the world. Methods: A qualitative systematic review of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase was undertaken for studies analyzing the association of sociodemographic factors with measures of PCI outcomes published before July 18, 2021. Study quality assessment tools from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were used to assess for risk of bias. Results: Out of 887 unique abstracts initially retrieved, 45 papers were included in the final qualitative systematic review. Sociodemographic disparities in PCI outcomes from 4702 PCI recipients were studied in 19 countries, with 14 studies conducted in the United States of America, published within the years of 1999 to 2021. Parental education and socioeconomic status (e.g. income) were the most investigated disparities in PCI outcomes with 24 and 17 identified studies, respectively. Conclusion: Socioeconomic status was a consistently reported determinant of PCI outcomes in the USA and elsewhere, and parental education, the most reported disparity, consistently impacted outcomes in countries outside the USA. This study is limited by our inability to perform a meta-analysis given the lack of standardization across measures of sociodemographic variables and assessment measures for PCI outcomes. Future studies should address the literature gap on racial and ethnic disparities among PCI outcomes and use standardized measures for sociodemographic variables and PCI outcomes to facilitate meta-analyses on the topic. Targeting the mechanisms of these disparities may mitigate the impact of the sociodemographic factors on PCI outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103608
JournalAmerican Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Cochlear implant
  • Healthcare disparities
  • Hearing loss
  • Pediatric otology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


Dive into the research topics of 'Sociodemographic disparities in pediatric cochlear implantation outcomes: A systematic review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this