Sequelae and Animal Modeling of Encephalitic Alphavirus Infections

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Eastern (EEEV), Venezuelan (VEEV), and western equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV) are members of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. Typically spread by mosquitoes, EEEV, VEEV, and WEEV induce febrile illness that may develop into more severe encephalitic disease, resulting in myriad severe neurologic sequelae for which there are no vaccines or therapeutics. Here, we summarize the clinical neurologic findings and sequelae induced by these three encephalitic viruses and describe the various animal models available to study them. We emphasize the crucial need for the development of advanced animal modeling combined with the use of telemetry, behavioral testing, and neuroimaging to facilitate a detailed mechanistic understanding of these encephalitic signs and sequelae. Through the use of these systems, much-needed therapeutics and vaccines can be developed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number382
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • alphavirus
  • animal models
  • encephalitis
  • sequelae

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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