Safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a novel 24-valent pneumococcal vaccine in toddlers: A phase 1 randomized controlled trial

Dorota Borys, Richard Rupp, Ronald Smulders, Gurunadh R. Chichili, Laura L. Kovanda, Vicki Santos, Frank Malinoski, George Siber, Richard Malley, Shite Sebastian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) significantly reduced pneumococcal disease burden. Nevertheless, alternative approaches for controlling more serotypes are needed. Here, the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a 24-valent (1/2/3/4/5/6A/6B/7F/8/9N/9V/10A/11A/12F/14/15B/17F/18C/19A/19F/20B/22F/23F/33F) pneumococcal vaccine based on Multiple Antigen-Presenting System (MAPS) technology (Pn-MAPS24v) was assessed in toddlers. Methods: In this phase 1, blinded, dose-escalation, active-controlled multicenter study conducted in the United States (September/2020–April/2022), 12–15-month-old toddlers primed with three doses of 13-valent PCV (PCV13) were randomized 3:2 to receive a single dose of one of three Pn-MAPS24v dose levels (1 μg/2 μg/5 μg per polysaccharide) or PCV13 intramuscularly. Reactogenicity (within 7 days), treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, within 180 days), serious/medically attended adverse events (SAEs/MAAEs, within 180 days), and immunogenicity (serotype-specific anti-capsular polysaccharide immunoglobulin G [IgG] and opsonophagocytic activity [OPA] responses at 30 days post-vaccination) were assessed. Results: Of 75 toddlers enrolled, 74 completed the study (Pn-MAPS24v 1 μg/2 μg/5 μg: 15/14/16, PCV13: 29). Frequencies of local (60 %/67 %/31 %) and systemic events (67 %/67 %/75 %) in the Pn-MAPS24v 1 μg/2 μg/5 μg and the PCV13 (55 %, 79 %) groups were in similar ranges. TEAEs were reported by 47 %/40 %/63 % of Pn-MAPS24v 1 μg/2 μg/5 μg recipients and 52 % of PCV13 recipients. No vaccine-related SAE was reported. At 30 days post-vaccination, for each of the 13 common serotypes, ≥93 % of participants in each group had IgG concentrations ≥0.35 μg/mL; >92 % had OPA titers ≥lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), except for serotype 1 (79 %). For 7/11 unique serotypes (2/8/9N/11A/17F/22F/33F), at all dose levels, ≥78 % of Pn-MAPS24v recipients in each group had IgG concentrations ≥0.35 μg/mL and 80 %-100 % had OPA titers ≥LLOQ. Conclusions: In 12–15-month-old toddlers, a single dose of Pn-MAPS24v showed an acceptable safety profile, regardless of dose level; AEs were reported at similar frequencies by Pn-MAPS24v and PCV13 recipients. Pn-MAPS24v elicited IgG and OPA responses to all common and most unique serotypes. These results support further clinical evaluation in infants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2560-2571
Number of pages12
Issue number10
StatePublished - Apr 11 2024


  • 24-valent pneumococcal vaccine
  • Immunogenicity
  • Multiple Antigen-Presenting System (MAPS)
  • PCV13
  • Safety
  • Toddlers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Veterinary
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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