Role of pollen NAD(P)H oxidase in allergic inflammation

Nilesh Dharajiya, Istvan Boldogh, Victor Cardenas, Sanjiv Sur

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Plant pollens are one of the most common outdoor allergens. Pollen grains and subpollen particles can reach lower airways and induce symptoms of seasonal asthma and allergic rhinitis. Plants possess NAD(P)H oxidase activity that generates reactive oxygen species for physiological functions such as root-hair and pollen-tube growth, defense against microbial infections and cell signaling. The presence of NAD(P)H oxidases in pollens and their role in induction of airway inflammation have not been described until recently. RECENT FINDINGS: We discovered the presence of NAD(P)H oxidase in ragweed and other plant pollens. These oxidases induce reactive oxygen species in mucosal cells (signal 1) independent of adaptive immunity. This reactive oxygen species facilitates antigen (signal 2)-induced allergic inflammation. Inhibiting signal 1 by administration of antioxidants attenuated ragweed extract-induced allergic inflammation. Likewise, abrogating signal 2 by antigen challenge in mice lacking T cells failed to induce allergic inflammation. SUMMARY: Reactive oxygen species generated by pollen NAD(P)H oxidase play a major role in pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation and airway hypersensitivity. Based on our findings, we propose a 'two signal hypothesis of allergic inflammation' in which both signal 1 (reactive oxygen species) and signal 2 (antigen presentation) are required in order to induce full-blown allergic inflammation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-62
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent opinion in allergy and clinical immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2008


  • Airway inflammation
  • NAD(P)H oxidase
  • Reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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