Racial and Health Disparities among Cirrhosis-related Hospitalizations in the USA

Ashwani K. Singal, Yong Fang Kuo, Juan P. Arab, Ramon Bataller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and Aims: Alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) is the most common cause of advanced liver disease worldwide, including in the USA. Alcohol use and cirrhosis mortality is higher in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/ AN) compared to Whites. Data are scanty on ALD as a liver disease etiology in AI/AN compared to other races and ethnicities. Methods: The National Inpatient Sample on 199,748 cirrhosis-related hospitalizations, 14,241 (2,893 AI/AN, 2,893 Whites, 2,882 Blacks, 2,879 Hispanics, and 2,694 Asians or other races) matched 1:1 for race/ethnicity on demographics, insurance, and income quartile of the residence zip code analyzed. Results: After controlling for geographic location and hospital type, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for ALD as cirrhosis etiology was higher among admissions in AI/AN vs. Whites [1.55 (1.37–1.75)], vs. Blacks [1.87 (1.65–2.11)], vs. Hispanic [1.89 (1.68–2.13)] and Asians/other races [2.24 (1.98– 2.53)]. OR was also higher for AI/AN vs. all other races for alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH) as one of the discharge diagnoses. The findings were similar in a subgroup of 4,649 admissions with decompensated cirrhosis and in a cohort of 350 admissions with acute-on-chronic liver failure as defined by EASL-CLIF criteria. Alcohol use disorder diagnosis was present in 38% of admissions in AI/AN vs. 24–30% in other races, p<0.001. A total of 838 (5.9%) admissions were associated with in-hospital mortality. OR (95% CI) for in-hospital mortality in AI/AN individuals was 34% reduced vs. Blacks [0.66 (0.51–0.84)], but no difference was observed on comparison with other races. Conclusions: ALD, including AH, is the most common etiology among cirrhosisrelated hospitalizations in the USA among AI/AN individuals. In-hospital mortality was observed in about 6% of admissions, which was higher for Blacks and similar in other races compared to admissions for AI/AN. Public health policies should be implemented to reduce the burden of advanced ALD among AI/AN individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)398-404
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2022


  • Alaska Natives
  • American Indians
  • Epidemiology
  • Healthcare burden
  • Magnitude
  • Native Americans
  • Transplant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


Dive into the research topics of 'Racial and Health Disparities among Cirrhosis-related Hospitalizations in the USA'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this