Prostate cancer cell type-specific involvement of the VDR and RXR in regulation of the human PTHrP gene via a negative VDRE

Veronica A. Tovar Sepulveda, Nancy L. Weigel, Miriam Falzon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) increases the growth and osteolytic potential of prostate cancer cells, making it important to control PTHrP expression in these cells. We show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and its non-hypercalcemic analog, EB1089, decrease PTHrP mRNA and cellular protein levels in the androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and its androgen-independent derivative, the C4-2 cell line. This effect is mediated via a negative Vitamin D response element (nVDREhPTHrP) within the human PTHrP gene and involves an interaction between nVDREhPTHrP and the Vitamin D receptor (VDR). The retinoid X receptor (RXR) is a frequent heterodimeric partner of the VDR. We show that RXRα forms part of the nuclear protein complex that interacts with nVDREhPTHrP along with the VDR in LNCaP and C4-2 cells. We also show that the RXR ligand, 9-cis-retinoic acid, downregulates PTHrP mRNA levels; this decrease is more pronounced in LNCaP than in C4-2 cells. In addition, 9-cis-retinoic acid enhances the 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated downregulation of PTHrP expression in both cell lines; this effect also is more pronounced in LNCaP cells. Proliferation of LNCaP, but not C4-2, cells is decreased by 9-cis-retinoic acid. Promoter activity driven by nVDREhPTHrP cloned upstream of the SV40 promoter and transiently transfected into LNCaP and C4-2 cells is downregulated in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 and EB1089 in both cell lines. Co-treatment with these compounds and 9-cis-retinoic acid further decreases CAT activity in LNCaP, but not C4-2, cells. These results indicate that PTHrP gene expression is regulated by 1,25(OH)2D 3 in a cell type-specific manner in prostate cancer cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)102-115
Number of pages14
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D
  • 9-cis-Retinoic acid
  • Negative Vitamin D response element
  • Parathyroid hormone-related protein
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology
  • Pharmacology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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