Prevalence of multiple forms of sexting behavior among youth: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Sheri Madigan, Anh Ly, Christina L. Rash, Joris Van Ouytsel, Jeff R. Temple

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

134 Scopus citations


IMPORTANCE: The existing literature on sexting among youth shows that sexting is a predictor of sexual behavior and may be associated with other health outcomes and risky behaviors. However, there remains a lack of consensus on the prevalence of sexting, which is needed to inform future research, intervention, and policy development. OBJECTIVE: To provide a meta-analytic synthesis of studies examining the prevalence of multiple forms of sexting behavior, analyzed by age, sex, geography, and method of sexting. DATA SOURCES: In an academic setting, electronic searches in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science were conducted for the period January 1990 to June 2016, yielding 1147 nonduplicate records. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if participants were younger than 18 years and the prevalence of sexting explicit images, videos, or messages was reported. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Literature review and data extraction followed established PRISMA guidelines. Two independent reviewers extracted all relevant data. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to derive the mean prevalence rates. Thirty-nine studies met final inclusion criteria. MAIN OUTCOMESAND MEASURES: Meta-analyses of the prevalence of sending, receiving, and forwarding without consent, as well as having one's sext forwarded without consent. RESULTS: Among39 included studies, there were 110 380 participants; the mean age was 15.16 years (age range, 11.9-17.0 years), and on average 47.2% were male. Studies were available for sending (n = 34), receiving (n = 20), forwarding without consent (n = 5), and having a sext forwarded without consent (n = 4). The mean prevalences for sending and receiving sexts were 14.8% (95% CI, 12.8%-16.8%) and 27.4% (95% CI, 23.1%-31.7%), respectively. Moderator analyses revealed that effect sizes varied as a function of child age (prevalence increased with age), year of data collection (prevalence increased over time), and sextingmethod (higher prevalence on mobile devices compared with computers). The prevalence offorwarding a sext without consent was 12.0% (95% CI, 8.4%-15.6%), and the prevalence ofhaving asext forwarded without consent was 8.4% (95% CI, 4.7%-12.0%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The prevalence of sexting has increased in recent years and increases as youth age. Further research focusing on nonconsensual sexting is necessary to appropriately target and inform intervention, education, and policy efforts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-335
Number of pages9
JournalJAMA Pediatrics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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