Potential immuno-nanomedicine strategies to fight COVID-19 like pulmonary infections

Srinivasa Reddy Bonam, Niranjan G. Kotla, Raghvendra A. Bohara, Yury Rochev, Thomas J. Webster, Jagadeesh Bayry

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic. At the time of writing this (October 14, 2020), more than 38.4 million people have become affected, and 1.0 million people have died across the world. The death rate is undoubtedly correlated with the cytokine storm and other pathological pulmonary characteristics, as a result of which the lungs cannot provide sufficient oxygen to the body's vital organs. While diversified drugs have been tested as a first line therapy, the complexity of fatal cases has not been reduced so far, and the world is looking for a treatment to combat the virus. However, to date, and despite such promise, we have received very limited information about the potential of nanomedicine to fight against COVID-19 or as an adjunct therapy in the treatment regimen. Over the past two decades, various therapeutic strategies, including direct-acting antiviral drugs, immunomodulators, a few non-specific drugs (simple to complex), have been explored to treat Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), influenza, and sometimes the common flu, thus, correlating and developing specific drugs centric to COVID-19 is possible. This review article focuses on the pulmonary pathology caused by SARS-CoV-2 and other viral pathogens, highlighting possible nanomedicine therapeutic strategies that should be further tested immediately.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101051
JournalNano Today
StatePublished - Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus
  • Influenza, Pulmonary drug delivery
  • MERS, Nanomedicine
  • Nanotechnology
  • Nanotherapeutics
  • Pathophysiology
  • SARS, SARS-CoV-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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