Piriformis syndrome: Implications of anatomical variations, diagnostic techniques, and treatment options

Lindsey Cassidy, Andrew Walters, Kathleen Bubb, Mohammadali M. Shoja, R. Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Details of piriformis syndrome, including the proper diagnosis and most effective form of treatment, continue to be controversial. While the cause, diagnosis, and treatment of piriformis syndrome remain elusive, many studies have been conducted to investigate newly developed diagnostic techniques as well as various treatment options for piriformis-induced sciatica. Despite the quantity of literature, few studies have demonstrated statistically significant results that support one form of treatment over another. Thus, despite the evidence supporting the newer treatment methodologies for piriformis syndrome, research should continue. It is important not only to evaluate treatment outcomes based on associated pain relief, but also to investigate the functional and anatomical return that patients experience from these studied treatments in order to fully explore the most effective form of therapy for piriformis syndrome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)479-486
Number of pages8
JournalSurgical and Radiologic Anatomy
Issue number6
StatePublished - Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Back pain
  • Botulinum toxin
  • Buttock
  • Piriformis
  • Sciatic nerve
  • Sciatica

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Surgery
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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