Pediatric Resident Well-being: A Group Concept Mapping Study

Jessica C. Babal, Efrat Lelkes, Heidi Kloster, Eric Zwemer, Elizabeth Rodriguez Lien, Daniel Sklansky, Ryan J. Coller, Megan A. Moreno, Roger Schultz, Sarah Webber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Pediatric residency programs invest substantial resources in supporting resident well-being. However, no pediatric resident well-being conceptual model exists to guide interventions. This study aimed to understand how a diverse stakeholder sample conceptualized well-being. Methods: We used group concept mapping methodology. We sent a brainstorming survey to pediatric residents and program leaders at 24 US residencies with the prompt, “The experience of well-being for resident physicians includes…” Participants at 4 residencies sorted well-being ideas conceptually and rated idea importance. We performed multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis to develop cluster maps. Using participant feedback and a consensus-driven process, we determined best cluster representation. We used pattern matching to compare domain ratings between subgroups. Results: In brainstorming, 136 residents and 22 program leaders from 22 residency programs generated 97 unique ideas. Ideas were sorted and rated by 33 residents, 14 program leaders. Eight domains aligning with 4 resident roles were identified. Domains were: 1) positive, safe, and diverse culture; 2) unity and connection; 3) professional fulfillment and mindset; 4) personal health and life satisfaction; 5) professional development and recognition; 6) schedule protections and downtime; 7) work systems and benefits; 8) proactive and compassionate leadership. Domains aligned with the following roles: 1) individual, 2) colleague, 3) employee, 4) emerging pediatrician. Residents placed higher value on schedule protections and downtime than program leaders, P < .05. Conclusions: Pediatric resident well-being may be conceptualized as inter-related domains corresponding with various resident roles. Participants aligned on many well-being priorities but differed regarding work schedules.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAcademic Pediatrics
StateAccepted/In press - 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • burnout
  • fulfillment
  • pediatrics
  • residency
  • schedule
  • wellness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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