Operative Vaginal Deliveries: Practical Aspects

Alfredo F. Gei, Luis D. Pacheco

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Forceps, vacuum, and cesarean sections are relatively recent additions to the obstetrician's armamentarium. The art of modern obstetrics is one that mandates from obstetricians the attentive vigilance of the development of natural processes and an active intervention when such processes fall outside normally accepted standards. What constitutes the " normal process" and the " accepted standard" is subject to discussion, and international variations in obstetric practice are in part the reflection of such controversies. This article presents a practical approach to the contemporary issue of instrumental deliveries, outlining supporting evidence (when available) and the most current position of professional colleges in obstetrics and gynecology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)323-349
Number of pages27
JournalObstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2011


  • Forceps
  • Instrumental deliveries
  • Operative vaginal delivery
  • Vacuum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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