Normalized movement quality measures for therapeutic robots strongly correlate with clinical motor impairment measures

Ozkan Celik, Marcia K. O'Malley, Corwin Boake, Harvey S. Levin, Nuray Yozbatiran, Timothy A. Reistetter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


In this paper, we analyze the correlations between four clinical measures (Fugl-Meyer upper extremity scale, Motor Activity Log, Action Research Arm Test, and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test) and four robotic measures (smoothness of movement, trajectory error, average number of target hits per minute, and mean tangential speed), used to assess motor recovery. Data were gathered as part of a hybrid robotic and traditional upper extremity rehabilitation program for nine stroke patients. Smoothness of movement and trajectory error, temporally and spatially normalized measures of movement quality defined for point-to-point movements, were found to have significant moderate to strong correlations with all four of the clinical measures. The strong correlations suggest that smoothness of movement and trajectory error may be used to compare outcomes of different rehabilitation protocols and devices effectively, provide improved resolution for tracking patient progress compared to only pre- and post-treatment measurements, enable accurate adaptation of therapy based on patient progress, and deliver immediate and useful feedback to the patient and therapist.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5446376
Pages (from-to)433-444
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Haptic feedback
  • motor function recovery
  • movement intermittency
  • rehabilitation robotics
  • stroke measures
  • therapeutic robots

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • General Neuroscience
  • Internal Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering


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