NMR Methods for Characterization of Glycosaminoglycan–Chemokine Interactions

Vitor H. Pomin, Krishna Rajarathnam

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Humans express around 50 chemokines that play crucial roles in human pathophysiology from combating infection to immune surveillance by directing and trafficking leukocytes to the target tissue. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate chemokine function by tuning monomer/dimer levels, chemotactic/haptotactic gradients, and how they are presented to their receptors. Knowledge of the structural features of the chemokine–GAG complexes and GAG properties that define chemokine interactions is essential not only to understand chemokine function, but also for developing drugs that disrupt chemokine–GAG crosstalk and thereby impart protection against dysregulated host defense. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has proven to be quite useful for providing residue-specific interactions, binding geometry and models, specificity, and affinity. Multiple NMR methods have been used including (1) chemical shift perturbation (CSP), (2) saturation transfer difference (STD), and (3) paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) techniques. In this chapter, we describe how NMR CSP, STD, and PRE can be best used for characterizing chemokine-GAG interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages15
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Chemical shift perturbation
  • Chemokines
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance
  • Paramagnetic relaxation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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