Molecular evolution of emerging Banna virus

Hong Liu, Xiao Yan Gao, Shi Hong Fu, Ming Hua Li, You Gang Zhai, Wei Shan Meng, Xiao Hong Sun, Zhi Lv, Huan Yu Wang, Xin Xin Shen, Yu Xi Cao, Ying He, Guo Dong Liang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Banna virus (BAV) is an emerging pathogen that causes human viral encephalitis and has been isolated from types of blood-sucking insects and mammals in Asia. However, there are no reported systematic studies that describe the origin and evolution of BAV. Here, a phylogenetic analysis of BAVs isolated from a variety of potential vectors and vertebrate hosts worldwide revealed that BAVs emerged in the beginning of the 20th century and do not exhibit a species barrier. The mean substitution rate of BAVs was 2.467 × 10− 2 substitution/site/year (95% HPD, 1.093 × 10− 3 to 5.628 × 10− 2). The lineage is mainly composed of BAVs from high-latitude regions, which are the most recently emerged viruses with significantly higher substitution rates compared with the lineage comprised of the isolates from middle or low-latitude regions. The genetic differences between BAV strains are positively correlated with the geographic distribution. Strains from the same latitude regions are almost 100% identical, whereas the differences between strains from long distance regions with different latitudes could be > 60%. Our results demonstrate that BAV is an emerging virus at a stage that involves rapid evolution and has great potential for introduction into non-endemic areas. Thus, enhanced surveillance of BAV is highly recommended worldwide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)250-255
Number of pages6
JournalInfection, Genetics and Evolution
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Banna virus
  • Evolution
  • Origin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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