Molecular epidemiology and evolution of West Nile virus in North America

Brian R. Mann, Allison R. McMullen, Daniele M. Swetnam, Alan D.T. Barrett

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced to New York in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout North America and into parts of Central and South America. Displacement of the original New York (NY99) genotype by the North America/West Nile 2002 (NA/WN02) genotype occurred in 2002 with subsequent identification of a novel genotype in 2003 in isolates collected from the southwestern Unites States region (SW/WN03 genotype). Both genotypes co-circulate to date. Subsequent WNV surveillance studies have confirmed additional genotypes in the United States that have become extinct due to lack of a selective advantage or stochastic effect; however, the dynamic emergence, displacement, and extinction of multiple WNV genotypes in the US from 1999-2012 indicates the continued evolution of WNV in North America.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5111-5129
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 16 2013


  • Evolution
  • Molecular epidemiology
  • Phylogenetics
  • West Nile virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


Dive into the research topics of 'Molecular epidemiology and evolution of West Nile virus in North America'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this