Medically Significant Vector-Borne Viral Diseases in Iran

Sarah Jo Paquette, Ayo Yila Simon, Ara XIII, Gary P. Kobinger, Nariman Shahhosseini

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Vector-borne viral diseases (VBVDs) continue to pose a considerable public health risk to animals and humans globally. Vectors have integral roles in autochthonous circulation and dissemination of VBVDs worldwide. The interplay of agricultural activities, population expansion, urbanization, host/pathogen evolution, and climate change, all contribute to the continual flux in shaping the epidemiology of VBVDs. In recent decades, VBVDs, once endemic to particular countries, have expanded into new regions such as Iran and its neighbors, increasing the risk of outbreaks and other public health concerns. Both Iran and its neighboring countries are known to host a number of VBVDs that are endemic to these countries or newly circulating. The proximity of Iran to countries hosting regional diseases, along with increased global socioeconomic activities, e.g., international trade and travel, potentially increases the risk for introduction of new VBVDs into Iran. In this review, we examined the epidemiology of numerous VBVDs circulating in Iran, such as Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Sindbis virus, West Nile virus, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Sandfly-borne phleboviruses, and Hantavirus, in relation to their vectors, specifically mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and rodents. In addition, we discussed the interplay of factors, e.g., urbanization and climate change on VBVD dissemination patterns and the consequent public health risks in Iran, highlighting the importance of a One Health approach to further surveil and to evolve mitigation strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3006
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Iran
  • arboviruses
  • climate change
  • epidemiology
  • mosquito
  • rodent
  • sandfly
  • tick
  • viral hemorrhagic fevers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology


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