Mathematical modeling of ligaments and tendons

S. L.Y. Woo, G. A. Johnson, B. A. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


Ligaments and tendons serve a variety of important functions in maintaining the structure of the human body. Although abundant literature exists describing experimental investigations of these tissues, mathematical modeling of ligaments and tendons also contributes significantly to understanding their behavior. This paper presents a survey of developments in mathematical modeling of ligaments and tendons over the past 20 years. Mathematical descriptions of ligaments and tendons are identified as either elastic or viscoelastic, and are discussed in chronological order. Elastic models assume that ligaments and tendons do not display time dependent behavior and thus, they focus on describing the nonlinear aspects of their mechanical response On the other hand, viscoelastic models incorporate time dependent effects into their mathematical description In particular, two viscoelastic models are discussed in detail; quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV), which has been widely used in the past 20 years, and the recently proposed single integral finite strain (SIFS) model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)468-473
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Biomechanical Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1993
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Physiology (medical)


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