Licensed Vaccines for Humans

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


This chapter provides an overview of different immunization strategies and the types of vaccines licensed for use in humans. The two major categories of vaccines are live attenuated (or weakened) and inactivated (or killed). Over the past 40 years a number of subunit vaccines with improved safety and immunogenicity have been developed and licensed for use in humans. These include polysaccharide, conjugate (also called glycoconjugate), and recombinant protein vaccines. In addition, recombinant DNA technology has been used to develop both live chimeric vaccine viruses and live vaccines where the seed viruses are synthesized in vitro. It should be emphasized that in most cases specific vaccines are licensed only in particular countries and that the information in this chapter should be considered to be generic and not correct for all countries. International and country-specific information can be found in the Further Reading section of this chapter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationVaccinology
Subtitle of host publicationAn Essential Guide
Number of pages29
ISBN (Electronic)9781118638033
ISBN (Print)9780470656167
StatePublished - Dec 9 2014


  • Chimeric viruses
  • Conjugate
  • Glycoconjugate
  • Inactivated (or killed)
  • Live attenuated (or weakened)
  • Polysaccharide
  • Recombinant protein
  • Subunit vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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