Left Ventricular Dyssynchrony by Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Current Understanding and Potential Future Clinical Applications

Qiangjun Cai, Masood Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony is an important prognostic factor for patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure and has emerged as a therapeutic target for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, approximately one-third of patients fail to improve after CRT based on current guideline recommendations and electrocardiographic criteria. Two-dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler-based techniques have shown variable results in assessment of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony and have limited value in clinical practice. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is an appealing novel imaging modality that has been recently used in quantitative evaluation of global and regional LV function. There is accumulating evidence that 3DE measurement of LV systolic dyssynchrony index may potentially play a role in predicting the short- and long-term response to CRT and further improve patient selection for CRT. New developments in 3DE speckle tracking technique and strain analysis may further improve the accuracy of LV mechanical dyssynchrony assessment in this population. In addition, recent studies suggest that mechanical dyssynchrony is present in patients with LV hypertrophy and diastolic heart failure. Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of dyssynchrony may aid in diagnosis and in predicting long-term outcome in these patients. We will summarize current understanding of 3DE techniques and parameters in assessment of LV mechanical dyssynchrony in the population of patients with systolic heart failure, LV hypertrophy, and diastolic heart failure. A number of the novel 3DE techniques described in this review are early in their stage of development, and they will continue to evolve and need further testing in large multicenter studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1299-1306
Number of pages8
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2015


  • cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • heart failure
  • left ventricular hypertrophy
  • speckle tracking
  • three-dimensional echocardiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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