Inside out: HIV, the gut microbiome, and the mucosal immune system

Jay Liu, Brett Williams, Daniel Frank, Stephanie M. Dillon, Cara C. Wilson, Alan L. Landay

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The components of the human gut microbiome have been found to influence a broad array of pathologic conditions ranging from heart disease to diabetes and even to cancer. HIV infection upsets the delicate balance in the normal host-microbe interaction both through alterations in the taxonomic composition of gut microbial communities as well as through disruption of the normal host response mechanisms. In this article we review the current methods of gut microbiome analysis and the resulting data regarding how HIV infection might change the balance of commensal bacteria in the gut. Additionally, we cover the various effects gut microbes have on host immune homeostasis and the preliminary but intriguing data on how HIV disrupts those mechanisms. Finally, we briefly describe some of the important biomolecules produced by gut microbiota and the role that they may play in maintaining host immune homeostasis with and without HIV infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)605-614
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Immunology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 15 2017
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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