Inhaled activated protein C attenuates lung injury induced by aerosolized endotoxin in mice

Anastasia Kotanidou, Heleni Loutrari, Evangelos Papadomichelakis, Constantinos Glynos, Christina Magkou, Apostolos Armaganidis, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Charis Roussos, Stylianos E. Orfanos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


The serine protease activated protein C (APC) possesses prominent anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory actions. In this study, we investigated the effect of inhaled recombinant human (rh) APC in a murine lung injury model. Animals inhaled 10 mg of Pseudomonas lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 3 mL normal saline (NS); 30 min prior to LPS, mice were pretreated with inhaled rhAPC (4 mg/3 mL NS; APC + LPS group) or NS (LPS group). A control animal group inhaled vehicle (NS) twice. 24 h later, total cells and cell-types, protein content, and the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and mouse keratinocyte-derived chemokine (a homolog of human IL-8) were estimated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Lung pathology given as total histology score (THS), wet/dry lung weight ratios, and lung vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression were additionally assessed. rhAPC inhalation attenuated the aerosolized LPS-induced increases of: total cells, neutrophils and macrophages in BALF, lung tissue VCAM-1 protein levels, and THS. Total protein levels and cytokines in BALF, and wet/dry weight ratios were increased in the LPS group, but rhAPC pretreatment did not significantly alter the LPS-induced responses. In conclusion, in this murine septic model of lung injury, inhaled rhAPC appears to attenuate lung inflammation, without reversing the observed increases in lung permeability and BALF cytokines. This effect may be associated with leukocyte trafficking modifications, related, at least in part, to VCAM-1 reduction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)134-140
Number of pages7
JournalVascular Pharmacology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • APC inhalation
  • Acute lung injury
  • Adhesion molecules
  • LPS
  • Neutrophils

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology


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