Impedance electrodes positioned on proximal portions of limbs quantify fluid compartments in dogs

M. R. Scheltinga, W. S. Helton, J. Rounds, D. O. Jacobs, D. W. Wilmore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Body resistance and reactance to the conduction of an alternating electrical current were measured using electrodes attached to distal and proximal portions of limbs in anesthetized dogs. Body impedance was calculated from these measurements obtained at 30-min time intervals during a control period and after intravenous administration of 0.9% saline. Extracellular (ECW) and total body water (TBW) were determined by bromide and heavy water dilution techniques, respectively. Baseline impedance obtained from proximal electrodes was related to ECW (r = 0.95, P < 0.001) and TBW (r = 0.80, P < 0.02). After saline infusion, proximal electrodes detected a significant fall in impedance (P < 0.001), whereas distal electrodes did not (P = 0.06). Furthermore, ECW and TBW could be estimated from the drop of proximal impedance after this bolus infusion (r = 0.82, P < 0.02, and r = 0.86, P < 0.01, respectively), but not from distal impedance measurements. Proximally placed impedance electrodes are superior to traditionally used distal electrodes for assessment of body fluid changes in the dog.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2039-2044
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes


  • bioelectrical impedance analysis
  • body composition
  • physiological monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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