Immunologic and virologic evaluation after influenza vaccination of HIV-1-infected patients

Keith R. Fowke, Ronald D'Amico, David N. Chernoff, John C. Pottage, Constance A. Benson, Beverly E. Sha, Harold A. Kessler, Alan L. Landay, Gene M. Shearer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The present study was designed to determine the effect of immune activation, achieved by influenza vaccination, on plasma HIV RNA levels and immunological parameters including CD4 cell levels, antigen-stimulated T-cell function and apoptotic death of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Design and methods: Thirty-four HIV-infected individuals and nine uninfected controls were immunized with influenza vaccine and blood was collected at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 16. Plasma was isolated and used for HIV RNA and influenza-specific antibody quantifications. CD4 cell counts, activation and maturation markers of T-lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry. In vitro T-helper responses, spontaneous- and activation-induced cell death assays were also performed. Results: Influenza-specific humoral and cellular immune responses correlated with CD4 count. Only in patients with CD4 counts > 300 x 106/l there was a modest increase in T-cell responses to influenza virus, which was less than control subjects, observed after vaccination. Immunization had no significant effect on CD4 counts or plasma viral levels in the HIV-positive patients. Baseline apoptosis inversely correlated with CD4 counts and directly correlated with viral load. Activation-induced apoptosis did not change appreciably after vaccination and spontaneous apoptosis increased only in the < 300 CD4 group. Conclusion: These results indicate that immune stimulation resulting from influenza vaccination did not significantly change the levels of plasma virus, CD4 cell counts, or activation-induced apoptosis in HIV-infected individuals, although an increase in the T-cell response to influenza and spontaneous apoptosis was observed in the > 300 and < 300 CD4 groups, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1013-1021
Number of pages9
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Apoptosis
  • HIV
  • Immunization
  • Influenza
  • T-cell response
  • Viral load

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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