Human Metapneumovirus (Pneumoviridae)

Antonella Casola, Matteo P. Garofalo, Xiaoyong Bao

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, belonging to the Metapneumovirus genus of the family Pneumoviridae. It is one of the major causes of acute respiratory tract infection in the pediatric population, in immunocompromised patients and in older adults worldwide, for which no specific prevention and treatment is currently available. Immunity is incomplete, and reinfections occur throughout the life. This article mainly focuses on summarizing the current knowledge on hMPV epidemiology, clinical disease, pathogenetic mechanisms, strategies for disease prevention and medical treatment, as well as potential future vaccination and therapeutic approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Virology
Subtitle of host publicationVolume 1-5, Fourth Edition
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9780128145166
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • Airway epithelial cells (AECs)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs)
  • Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)
  • Human RSV (hRSV)
  • Human metapnemovirus (hMPV)
  • Inclusion bodies (IBs)
  • Interferon (IFN)
  • Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG)
  • Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)
  • NOD-like receptors (NLRs)
  • Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)
  • Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)
  • RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs)
  • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)
  • Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
  • Single-stranded RNA (ssRNA)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
  • Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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