Four weeks of treatment with rifax-imin fails to significantly alter microbial diversity in rectal samples of hiv-infected immune non-responders (Actg a5286) which may be attributed to rectal swab use

A5286 protocol team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: HIV-infected individuals have evidence of intestinal microbial translocation which is associated with immune activation and unfavorable clinical outcomes. Rifaximin, a non-ab-sorbable antibiotic which reduces microbial translocation in other disease states, was shown to have a marginal beneficial effect on microbial translocation, T-cell activation, and inflammation in a multisite randomized trial (ACTG A5286; NCT01466595) of HIV-infected persons with poor immunologic recovery receiving ART. Here, we report analysis of the rectal microbiome changes associated with that trial. Methods: HIV-1-infected individuals receiving ART with CD4-T cell count < 350cells/mm3 and viral suppression were randomized 2:1 to rifaximin or no therapy for 4 weeks. Rectal swabs were collected at baseline (pre-treatment) and at week 4 of rifaximin therapy. Genomic DNA extracted from rectal swab samples was analyzed using high throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Results: Forty-eight HIV-infected participants (31 received rifaximin, 17 no treatment) were included. There was broad variability in the recovery of bacterial rRNA from the specimens at baseline. No major significant (FDR P < 0.05) effects of rifaximin treatment on alpha-or beta-diversity or individual taxa were observed between or within the treatment arms, with analyses conducted at taxonomic levels from phylum to genus. Conclusions: Rifaximin did not meaningfully alter the diversity or composition of the rectal microbiome of HIV-infected individuals after 4 weeks of therapy, although rectal swab specimens varied widely in their microbial load.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)235-250
Number of pages16
JournalPathogens and Immunity
Volume4
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 23 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • HIV
  • Immune activation
  • Microbial translocation
  • Microbiome
  • Rifaximin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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