Flavivirus ns1 and its potential in vaccine development

Kassandra L. Carpio, Alan D.T. Barrett

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The Flavivirus genus contains many important human pathogens, including dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), West Nile (WN), yellow fever (YF) and Zika (ZIK) viruses. While there are effective vaccines for a few flavivirus diseases (JE, TBE and YF), the majority do not have vaccines, including WN and ZIK. The flavivirus nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein has an unusual structure–function because it is glycosylated and forms different structures to facilitate different roles intracellularly and extracellularly, including roles in the replication complex, assisting in virus assembly, and complement antagonism. It also plays a role in protective immunity through antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity, and anti-NS1 antibodies elicit passive protection in animal models against a virus challenge. Historically, NS1 has been used as a diagnostic marker for the flavivirus infection due to its complement fixing properties and specificity. Its role in disease pathogenesis, and the strong humoral immune response resulting from infection, makes NS1 an excellent target for inclusion in candidate flavivirus vaccines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number622
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Flavivirus
  • NS1
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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