Financing Benefits and Barriers to Routine HIV Screening in Clinical Settings in the United States: A Scoping Review

Hani Serag, Isabel Clark, Cherith Naig, David Lakey, Yordanos M. Tiruneh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends everyone between 13–64 years be tested for HIV at least once as a routine procedure. Routine HIV screening is reimbursable by Medicare, Medicaid, expanded Medicaid, and most commercial insurance plans. Yet, scaling-up HIV routine screening remains a challenge. We conducted a scoping review for studies on financial benefits and barriers associated with HIV screening in clinical settings in the U.S. to inform an evidence-based strategy to scale-up routine HIV screening. We searched Ovid MEDLINE®, Cochrane, and Scopus for studies published between 2006–2020 in English. The search identified 383 Citations; we screened 220 and excluded 163 (outside the time limit, irrelevant, or outside the U.S.). Of the 220 screened articles, we included 35 and disqualified 155 (did not meet the eligibility criteria). We organized eligible articles under two themes: financial benefits/barriers of routine HIV screening in healthcare settings (9 articles); and Cost-effectiveness of routine screening in healthcare settings (26 articles). The review concluded drawing recommendations in three areas: (1) Finance: Incentivize healthcare providers/systems for implementing HIV routine screening and/or separate its reimbursement from bundle payments; (2) Personnel: Encourage nurse-initiated HIV screening programs in primary care settings and educate providers on CDC recommendations; and (3) Approach: Use opt-out approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number457
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • HIV
  • HIV prevention
  • financial benefits
  • opt-out approach
  • routine screening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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