Fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis in the preparation of scotch whiskey

Kendrick A. Goss, Rami Alharethi, Michael Laposata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), nonoxidative ethanol metabolites present in human organs commonly damaged by ethanol abuse, have been implicated as mediators of organ damage. FAEE are additives in various foods and beverages to provide flavor or fragrance, and therefore are common dietary lipid constituents. We hypothesized that FAEE could be generated during alcoholic beverage production because fatty acids are present within microorganisms and ethanol is generated during the fermentation process. In this report, we demonstrate that FAEE are present in commercially available scotch beverages, and that in the preparation of scotch, FAEE can be produced during the fermentation reaction as a result of FAEE synthase activity in the yeast. Following ingestion of scotch, preformed FAEE are delivered to GI tract. The consequences of ingestion of FAEE in scotch, if any, remain to be determined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)241-245
Number of pages5
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Alcoholism
  • Ethanol
  • Ethanol abuse Addiction
  • Fatty acids
  • Lipids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Biochemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Neurology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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