Etiology and management of benign breast disease

Jennifer Sasaki, Abby Geletzke, Rena B. Kass, V. Suzanne Klimberg, Edward M. Copeland, Kirby I. Bland

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations


The aberrations of normal development and involution (ANDI) classification of benign breast disorder (BBD) provides an overall framework for benign conditions of the breast that encompasses both pathogenesis and the degree of abnormality. It is a bidirectional framework based on the fact that most BBDs arise from normal physiologic processes: one component defines BBD along a spectrum from normal to mild abnormality ("disorder") to severe abnormality ("disease"); the other component defines the pathogenesis of the condition. Together these two components provide a comprehensive framework into which most BBDs can be fit. This scheme is based on the recommendations of the international multidisciplinary working group held in 1992.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Breast
Subtitle of host publicationComprehensive Management of Benign and Malignant Diseases
PublisherElsevier Inc.
ISBN (Print)9780323359559
StatePublished - 2018


  • Atypia
  • Cysts
  • Ductal hyperplasia
  • Endocrine
  • Fibroadenoma
  • Fibrocystic
  • Mastalgia
  • Mastopathy
  • Papilloma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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