Embryology of the thoracic outlet

R. Shane Tubbs, Mohammadali M. Shoja

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


The thoracic outlet is the area in the lower neck traversed by the brachial plexus and subclavian vessels between the thorax and axilla. This dynamic space is formed by the first thoracic vertebra, first rib, and manubrium of the sternum. The thoracic outlet changes in volume with the movement of the upper limbs, thorax, and neck, is occupied by scalene and prevertebral muscles and fibrous structures, and is limited by osseous structures - the clavicle, first rib, and cervical vertebrae and transverse processes. During upper limb abduction, patients with thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) have been found to decrease the space of the outlet more compared to healthy individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThoracic Outlet Syndrome
PublisherSpringer London
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781447143666
ISBN (Print)9781447143659
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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