Efficacy and Safety of Propofol-Mediated Sedation for Outpatient Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Juliana F. Yang, Priya Farooq, Kate Zwilling, Devi Patel, Ali A. Siddiqui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and Aims: Propofol sedation for endoscopy may result in a rapid and unpredictable progression from deep sedation to general anesthesia, leading to potential complications. We investigated the incidence and predictors of sedation-related adverse events (SAEs) in nonintubated patients who underwent outpatient ERCP procedures with propofol sedation. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients who underwent propofol sedation for ERCP procedures. Patients were sedated using propofol in combination with low-dose opiates. Data collected included patient demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASAs) physical status, and procedure times. SAE includes hypoxia (pulse oximetry <90 %), hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg), and conversation to endotracheal intubation. Factors associated with SAEs were examined by univariate analysis and multivariate regression analysis (MVA). Results: A total of 3041 patients were evaluated. The median BMI was 25.2 kg/m2, and the median ASA score was 3. The mean (±SD) duration of the procedures was 59 ± 23 min. Hypoxia requiring airway manipulation occurred in 28 % (n = 843) patients and hypotension requiring vasopressors in 0.4 % (n = 12). Forty-nine (1.6 %) patients required endotracheal intubation as a result of food in the stomach. Procedures underwent early termination in 8 (0.3 %) cases due to sedation-related hypotension (n = 5) and refractory laryngospasm (n = 3). Six patients were admitted after the ERCP for aspiration pneumonia as a result of sedation. Patients who developed SAE were older, had a higher mean BMI, and had longer mean procedure durations. On MVA, older age (p = 0.003), female sex (p = 0.001), BMI (p = 0.02), and ASA class ≥3 (p = 0.01) independently predicted SAEs. Conclusions: Propofol can be used safely and effectively as a sedative agent for patients undergoing ERCPs when administered by trained professionals. Age, female sex, BMI, and ASA class ≥3 are independent predictors of SAEs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1686-1691
Number of pages6
JournalDigestive Diseases and Sciences
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Adverse events
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
  • Propofol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Gastroenterology


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