Effects of in ovo injection of theophylline and electrolyte solutions on hatchability and growth of broilers from day 0 to day 10 post-hatch

B. M. McGruder, W. Zhai, M. M. Keralapurath, P. D. Gerard, E. D. Peebles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The in ovo feeding of supplemental nutrients, electrolytes and stimulants during late embryogenesis has the potential of benefitting subsequent broiler performance. Therefore, the effects of the automated in ovo injection of 200 μL of a 1:400 carbohydrate/electrolyte nutrient solution, 5.0 mM tripotassium citrate, or 1.0 mM creatine in combination with 5.5 mM potassium chloride and 1.0 mM theophylline solution on hatchability and post-hatch performance of Ross x Ross 308 broilers were investigated. Non-injected and 117 mM saline-injected controls were included. All 5 treatment groups, each containing 20 eggs, were equally represented on each of 4 replicate tray levels in a single incubator. All eggs were incubated under standard incubation conditions with incubator dry and wet bulb temperature set at 37.6 and 29.0°C, respectively. Treatment solutions were injected into the amnion of embryos on d 18 of incubation. After hatch, chicks were brooded under standard commercial grow-out conditions. Hatchability; BW on d 0 (d of hatch), 3 and 10 post-hatch; d 3 yolk sac weight and yolk sac moisture concentration and post-hatch mortality were not affected by any injection treatments. Plasma refractive index decreased and liver moisture concentration of broiler progeny increased between d 3 and 10 post-hatch; however, no treatment effects on either parameter were observed. The current study indicated that the tested stimulant solutions had no detrimental effects on broiler hatchability or post-hatch performance, suggesting their potential use alone or in combination in the commercial injection of broiler hatching eggs to improve growth and post-hatch broiler performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)927-932
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Poultry Science
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Electrolyte
  • Hatchability
  • In ovo injection
  • Post-hatch performance
  • Theophylline

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Animals
  • Animal Science and Zoology


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