Effects of Age and Sex on Hospital Readmission in Traumatic Brain Injury

Chih Ying Li, Amol Karmarkar, Deepak Adhikari, Kenneth Ottenbacher, Yong Fang Kuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Objective: To investigate the effects of age and sex on 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission after acute hospital discharge for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Acute hospitals and postacute discharge settings. Participants: Individuals (N=52,877) with Diagnosis Related Group codes of TBI, who were divided into 4 age groups: 18 to 40, 41 to 65, 66 to 75, and ≥76 years. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: All-cause hospital readmission. Results: Sex differences in 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission were found among all age groups (P<.05 for all). The largest sex differences in hospital readmission were in the 2 oldest groups (66–75 and ≥76y). For both sexes, the oldest group (≥76y) had the highest adjusted 90-day readmission risk (eg, 90-d readmission: odds ratio, 2.32 [95% confidence interval, 2.01–2.69] for men; odds ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.59–2.43] for women). Among those readmitted within 90 days, the youngest group (18–40y) had the highest cumulative readmission percentage (35% for both sexes) within the first week of hospital discharge. Conclusions: Age and sex were significantly associated with hospital readmission during the first 90 days postdischarge in our TBI sample. Specifically, those aged 66 to 75 or ≥76 years had the highest readmission risk over 90 days for both sexes. The findings suggest that clinicians should consider age and sex in discharge planning and for the entire episode of care for the population with TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1279-1288.e1
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2018


  • Age groups
  • Brain injuries
  • Long-term care
  • Patient readmission
  • Rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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