Effect Modification and Interaction Terms: It Takes Two to Tango

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


In this Investigators' Corner I look more deeply into the previously discussed phenomenon of effect modification. I revisit an explanation and examples of the phenomenon and then examine how to account for it statistically. Specifically, I show, in detail, how to write a regression equation that includes interaction terms that account for the effect modification. Finally, I look at interpretation of regression coefficients both with and without the presence of effect modification, and the associated interaction terms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)899-902
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Foot and Ankle Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016


  • confounding
  • effect modification
  • interaction terms
  • multivariate analysis
  • regression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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