Education of pediatric surgery residents over time: Examining 15 years of case logs

Claire B. Cummins, Kanika A. Bowen-Jallow, Sifrance Tran, Ravi S. Radhakrishnan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background/Purpose: Surgical indications and techniques have changed over the last 15 years. The number of Pediatric Surgery training programs has also increased. We sought to examine the effect of these changes on resident education by examining case log data. Methods: Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs for graduating Pediatric Surgery residents were examined from 2004 to 2018. Using the summary statistics provided, linear regression analysis was conducted on each case log code and category. Results: In 2004, there were 24 Pediatric Surgery training programs and 24 Pediatric Surgery residents graduating with an average of 979.8 total cases logged. In 2018, there were 36 programs with 38 residents graduating with an average of 1260.2 total cases logged. Total case volume of graduating residents significantly increased over the last 15 years (p < 0.001). Significant increases were demonstrated in skin/soft tissue/musculoskeletal (p < 0.01), abdominal (p < 0.001), hernia repair (p < 0.001), genitourinary (p < 0.01), and endoscopy (p < 0.001). No significant changes were seen in the head and neck, thoracic, cardiovascular, liver/biliary, and non-operative trauma categories. No categories significantly decreased over the time period. No significant changes were seen in the number of multiple index congenital cases, including tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia repair, omphalocele, gastroschisis, choledochal cyst excision, perineal procedure for imperforate anus, and major hepatic resections for tumors. Pertinent increases in specific procedures include diaphragmatic hernia repair (p < 0.01), ECMO cannulation/decannulation(p < 0.05), thyroidectomy (p < 0.001), parathyroidectomy (p < 0.001), biliary atresia (p < 0.001), and circumcision (p < 0.001) as well as most laparoscopic abdominal procedures. Specific procedure codes with significant decreases include tracheostomy (p < 0.05), minimally invasive decortication/pleurectomy/blebectomy (p < 0.001), laparoscopic splenectomy (p < 0.001), as well as most open abdominal procedures. Conclusion: Despite increasing numbers of Pediatric Surgery residents and training programs, the number of cases performed by each graduating resident has increased. This increase is primarily fueled by increase in abdominal, skin/soft tissue/musculoskeletal, hernia repair, genitourinary, and endoscopic cases. Level of Evidence: Level II.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-98
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
  • Pediatric surgery residency
  • Surgical education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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