Echocardiography in patients with complications related to pacemakers and cardiac defibrillators

Ahmed Almomani, Khadija Siddiqui, Masood Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The evolving indications and uses for implantable cardiac devices have led to a significant increase in the number of implanted devices each year. Implantation of endocardial leads for permanent pacemakers and cardiac defibrillators can cause many delayed complications. Complications may be mechanical and related to the interaction of the device leads with the valves and endomyocardium, e.g., perforation, infection, and thrombosis, or due to the electrical pacing of the myocardium and conduction abnormalities, e.g., left ventricular dyssynchrony. Tricuspid regurgitation, another delayed complication in these patients, may be secondary to both mechanical and pacing effects of the device leads. Echocardiography plays an important role in the diagnosis of these device-related complications. Both two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography provide useful diagnostic information. Real time three-dimensional echocardiography is a novel technique that can further enhance the detection of lead-related complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)388-399
Number of pages12
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2014


  • cardiac pacing
  • echocardiography
  • myocardial rupture
  • thrombus
  • tricuspid regurgitation
  • vegetations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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