Early and delayed benefits of HIV-1 suppression: Timeline of recovery of innate immunity effector cells

Livio Azzoni, Jihed Chehimi, Lan Zhou, Andrea S. Foulkes, Rayford June, Vernon C. Maino, Alan Landay, Charles Rinaldo, Lisa P. Jacobson, Luis J. Montaner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: The kinetics of recovery for innate immune effectors following antiretroviral therapy are unknown. DESIGN AND METHODS: Multiple sequential cryopreserved samples (viremic and ART-suppressed) from 66 patients enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study or Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study cohorts (median follow-up, 700 days) were analyzed to determine natural killer, dendritic and T-cell changes by flow cytometry. Functional parameters were also measured in a subset of samples. Changes over time were analyzed by mixed-effect modeling based on a linear spline with a single knot at 270 days. RESULTS: Following viral suppression, a rapid rise in CD4 and white blood cell counts and a decline in T-cell activation were confirmed. However, natural killer cell subsets increased after 270 days of therapy, with a negative effect by baseline CD4%. CD123+ plasmacytoid but not myeloid dendritic cells showed a trend to increase during the first 270 days with a positive effect of baseline CD4%; plasmacytoid dendritic cell-induced interferon-α production significantly increased by end of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The kinetics of natural killer and plasmacytoid dendritic cell recovery are markedly different from those of T-cell subsets, indicative of early and delayed benefits of suppressive regimens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-305
Number of pages13
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Dendritic cells
  • Innate immunity
  • Natural killer cells
  • Viral suppression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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