Development of Endotrypanum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Experimentally Infected Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Antonia Maria Ramos Franco, Robert B. Tesh, Hilda Guzman, Maria P. Deane, Gabriel Grimaldi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The developmental biology (parasite establishment, migration, and differentiation) of Brazilian strains of Endotrypanum are reported for 3 sand fly species: Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, L. shannoni Dyar, and Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. Laboratory-reared sand flies were infected by feeding on a promastigote suspension through a chick-skin membrane. Infections within the insect gut were examined at various times after feeding by staining fresh and fixed specimens. Development of Endotrypanum varied for each parasite-host species association. After feeding on culture forms of E. schaudinni Mesnil & Brimont (strain ISHA/BR/80/IM1111), significantly more L. shannoni (100%, 9/9) became infected than did L. longipalpis (62.3%, 33/53) or P. papatasi (27.3%, 15/55). The greatest number of infections were in the midgut and hindgut from 6 to 16 d after feeding, but flagellates also were present in the Malpighian tubules. Moreover, distinct development patterns in the sand fly gut were obtained when the Callejon L. longipalpis colony was fed on cultures of other Endotrypanum strains. Significantly fewer sand flies became infected with strain MCHO/BR/85/ IM2259 (18.2%, 4/22) than with strain ISHA/BR/80/IM1111 (55.6%, 20/36). There were also individual variation in the distribution and survival of parasites within the guts of flies in each group. These data indicate that there is variation in the susceptibility to infection with Endotrypanum among and within sand fly species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-192
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of medical entomology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Endotrypanum
  • Experimental infection
  • Sand flies
  • Trypanosomatidae

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • General Veterinary
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases


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